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    發表日期:2019年03月25日

      

    科學編制國土空間生態修復規劃

    來源:中國環境報2019-03-21

    作者:生態環境部環境規劃院 王夏暉、張簫

     

    國務院新一輪機構改革加快推進生態文明建設,提出編制實施國土空間生態修復規劃這一創新舉措,加大力度推進山水林田湖草生命共同體的全方位系統綜合治理。科學編制國土空間生態修復規劃,成為系統實施國土空間生態修復重大工程的優先任務。

    國土空間生態修復規劃定位于對國土空間生態修復活動的統籌謀劃和總體設計,是在一定時間周期、一定國土空間范圍內開展生態保護修復活動的指導性、綱領性文件。其核心是通過研究編制規劃,統籌設計國土空間生態修復活動的實施范圍、預期目標、工程內容、技術要求、投資計劃和實施路徑,以有效保障和綜合提升國土空間生態修復活動的生態效益、社會效益、經濟效益。


    統籌確定規劃框架與內容

    綜合考慮國土空間生態修復主要目標與任務,國土空間生態修復規劃可分為6個部分:

    基礎調查與評估。主要分析規劃區自然生態狀況、經濟社會概況、重大工程實施情況等生態修復基礎,明確生態環境、生態空間、生態安全等方面存在的突出問題,以及未來開展國土空間生態保護修復所面臨的形勢與挑戰。

    規劃總體思路。闡述編制實施規劃的政策要求、規劃定位、實施范圍、規劃期限等,明確規劃指導思想、基本原則、主要目標、具體指標、總體戰略等。

    重點修復空間識別。通過開展國土空間綜合評價,識別擬開展生態修復的重要空間、敏感脆弱空間、受損破壞空間等范圍、面積與分布,并制定生態修復分區導引。

    規劃任務與措施。針對突出問題和既定目標,提出生態修復相關任務、具體措施與實施時序要求。

    重大工程與投資需求。綜合考慮突出問題、規劃目標、技術經濟可行性,設計生態修復重大工程,提出項目清單,測算投資需求,并分析工程項目實施的生態效益、經濟效益和社會效益。

    組織實施機制。主要包括為保障規劃有效實施而制定的配套政策措施、組織保障、績效評價等。

    國土空間生態修復規劃編制主要包括調查評估、目標分析、方案設計、成果集成等4個步驟:

    調查評估。在收集整理相關資料文獻的基礎上,分析規劃區自然資源、人口社會、經濟狀況、開發格局、規劃區劃、人居環境、耕地質量、生態狀況、礦山問題和實施基礎等國土空間生態修復領域的現狀、問題,預測未來發展趨勢。

    目標分析。根據調查評估分析明確的突出問題,結合上位專項規劃或區域總體規劃等對于國土空間生態修復領域設定的任務性目標,重點從國土空間開發格局優化成效、生態環境質量改善效率、工程項目任務完成量等方面,綜合制定生態修復評價指標體系。

    方案設計。根據規劃區國土空間生態修復各領域存在的突出問題和設定目標,依據國家、相關地方政府及有關部門政策要求和技術規范,提出解決突出生態問題、完成任務目標的具體措施、工程、政策、制度等。

    成果集成。結合上述三個方面的成果,按照要求,依據相關領域規劃編制技術規范,形成規劃文本、說明、圖集、研究報告、數據庫、信息系統等成果。

    根據《全國國土規劃綱要(20162030年)》《全國土地整治規劃(2016-2020年)》《礦山地質環境保護規定》等相關要求,國土空間生態修復應包括國土空間生態整治、退化土地生態修復、礦山地質環境治理等核心內容。按照其作用對象及對應國土空間規劃生產空間、生活空間和生態空間的區位分布,可細分為13個的具體類型:生產空間包括礦山地質環境監管與治理、工礦廢棄地土地整理復墾、農用地土地整理復墾、高標準農田建設等4項;生活空間包括低效用地再開發、人居環境綜合整治等2項;生態空間包括濕地生態修復、河湖岸線生態修復、海岸生態修復、森林生態修復、草原生態修復、生態景觀修復、自然災害預防與修復等7項。


    針對規劃技術難點創新解決方案

    國土空間生態修復規劃更加突出強調“山水林田湖草生命共同體”系統思想,在規劃編制中應遵循以維護和提升區域生態系統服務功能為核心,統籌管理自然資源與環境、污染治理與生態保護、水—氣—土—生物要素管理,目標是保護生態系統原真性、完整性和生態服務功能,平衡生態環境保護與經濟發展、資源利用的關系。其難點主要在于如何統籌設計山水林田湖草生態系統整體保護、系統修復、區域統籌、綜合治理的有效途徑。同時,由于生態修復工程往往具有規模大、類型多、技術復雜、周期長、見效慢等特點,修復規劃的技術難點在于,規劃任務措施的設置如何統籌處理好整體與局部、當前與長遠、保護與修復措施選擇等方面的關系。

    通過創新改進生態評估結果分析技術方法,強化生態保護紅線劃定成果應用等方式,在科學識別重點修復區域、重要生態系統等基礎上,合理設定規劃任務措施。另外,生產空間、生活空間修復主要以可持續開發利用為導向,可運用國土資源環境承載力評價或國土空間開發適宜性評價結果。國土空間生態修復規劃編制關鍵節點可歸納為5個方面:

    生態狀況評估與重點區域識別。在調查收集經濟、社會、生態環境現狀及歷史數據資料的基礎上,開展區域生態狀況評估和生態系統演變分析,初步確定規劃區擬開展生態保護修復的重點區域。開展生態評估,按照生態保護紅線劃定技術要求,初步判定規劃區生態功能重要、生態系統敏感脆弱區域的空間分布。開展生態系統演變分析,識別受損生態系統空間分布。解譯分析不同歷史時期遙感影像的生態系統類型分布,分析生態系統類型變化矩陣,理清區域空間尺度不同類型生態系統構成、比例的變化情況。

    評估分析結論校核檢驗。通過疊加分析和實地調研,進一步校核檢驗生態評估和生態系統演變分析得出的結論。建議將生態評估結果與生態系統演變分析結果、生態保護紅線的劃定成果進行疊加分析,從技術方法層面進一步提高評價分析結果的準確性。

    空間規劃區劃協調銜接。將通過空間分析得出的生態保護修復優先區域與主體功能區規劃、土地利用規劃、國民經濟和社會發展規劃等相關空間規劃區劃政策進行銜接,確保生態保護修復措施的制定,能夠精準施策于生態環境質量改善和生態環境管理的需要。

    生態保護修復分區方案。結合生態功能敏感重要區域和受損嚴重區域的空間分布,提出開展生態修復的重點區域,作為規劃實施的優先區。對重點區域進行空間結構分析,進一步理清重點區域內部的生態修復問題、優先區域、修復方向等,據此進一步優化設計任務設置與工程選擇。

    生態修復任務路徑確定。結合遙感影像分析,識別擬開展生態修復的區域原有生態系統類型和結構,以盡可能恢復自然狀態和生態系統整體性為目標,以近自然、生態化為標準,合理選擇生態保護或修復技術措施,并配套制定相關管理措施,從而有效解決生態修復措施和路徑選擇問題。

    為保障規劃落地實施,應建立多元化投入機制,建議中央財政設立國土空間生態修復專項資金。以國土空間規劃為統領,以國土空間生態修復規劃為抓手,構建生態保護修復長效制度。應制定國土空間生態修復規劃編制技術規范,建立統一規程、目標銜接、要素融合、政策協同的生態保護修復長效機制。

     

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