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    發表日期:2015年07月03日
    開源節流保護水資源 

     

    ◆張文靜 吳悅穎 王強

    水是生命之源、生產之要、生態之基。當前,我國水資源形勢嚴峻,人多水少、水資源時空分布不均是我國基本國情,由水資源短缺引起的水環境污染、水生態惡化等問題日益突出,已成為制約我國經濟社會可持續發展的主要瓶頸。

    國務院印發的《水污染防治行動計劃》(以下簡稱“水十條”)明確了節約保護水資源的要求,有針對性地提出了控制用水總量、提高用水效率、科學保護水資源的政策措施,銜接有序地部署了相關安排,是“十三五”乃至未來一段時期水資源保護領域的重要行動綱領。

    由于水資源量減少,湖泊萎縮、河流斷流等現象頻繁出現,致使湖庫、河流徑污比逐漸增加,水質不斷惡化。一些主要河流的污染物濃度不但超過了漁業用水水質標準,甚至在一些支流的中下游河段已達到或超過魚類致死濃度。

    另外,我國部分地區(如京津冀、長三角及珠三角等地區)地下水資源有限,因為超采導致的地下水枯竭、地面沉降、海水入侵等生態環境和地質災害問題頻發。目前,超過50個城市發生了不同程度的地面沉降,累計沉降量超過200毫米的總面積超過7.9萬平方公里。

    由此可見,節約保護水資源是維持水生態環境自凈能力的基礎,是有效減少生態環境和地質災害的關鍵。節水就是治污。

    同樣,有效控制用水總量也迫在眉睫。2005年、2010年和2013年我國的總用水量分別為5633億立方米、6022億立方米和6184億立方米,呈明顯上升趨勢。2012年,國務院印發了《關于實行最嚴格的水資源管理制度的意見》(以下簡稱《意見》),提出實施用水總量控制制度,到2020年,全國用水總量力爭控制在6700億立方米以內。

    用水總量控制需要多部門聯合實施。要加強對重要河流斷面和湖泊水位、流量監控管理,建立行政區域取用水總量控制指標體系及考核獎懲制度。要規范取水許可管理,在相關規劃和項目建設布局水資源論證過程中,充分考慮水資源條件和防洪要求,嚴格新增取水審批,建立健全各級取水許可登記庫,實施用水大戶取水遠程監控系統。嚴控地下水超采,要先明確現狀,開展地質災害易發區地下水開發利用評估。然后要強化監管,編制地面沉降區、海水入侵區等區域的地下水壓采方案,開展地下水超采區綜合治理,實行取水許可和采礦許可,并劃定地下水禁采區、限采區和地面沉降控制區。對于京津冀、長三角、珠三角等地下水資源有限的地區,要求2017年完成地下水禁采區、限采區和地面沉降控制區的劃定工作。

    值得關注的是,提高用水效率是“水十條”的一大亮點。這也是我國當前嚴峻的用水形勢所迫。2013年,我國萬元國內生產總值(當年價)用水量、萬元工業增加值(當年價)用水量分別為109立方米和67立方米。與《意見》相銜接,“水十條”提出,到2020年全國萬元國內生產總值用水量、萬元工業增加值用水量比2013年分別下降35%、30%以上,并要求完善萬元國內生產總值水耗指標等用水效率評估體系,把節水目標任務完成情況納入地方政府政績考核。

    提高用水效率包括開源和節流兩方面。在開源方面,與發達國家相比,我國水資源短缺地區的大量再生水沒有得到很好利用,大部分城市未實施雨水收集、處理和利用,易于開采的微咸水也未有效發揮作用。為此,“水十條”將再生水、雨水、微咸水等非常規水源納入水資源統一配置,拓展水資源來源。

    在節流方面,“水十條”提出了十分具體化的目標和措施:

    第一,強化工業企業用水定額管理。目前,水利部已經發布了電力、鋼鐵、紡織、造紙、石油石化、化工、食品發酵等7類高耗水工業行業取用水定額標準16項,覆蓋了35個產品;住建部發布了《工業企業水量平衡測試方法(CJ41-1999)》;國家質量監督檢驗檢疫總局與標準化管理委員會發布了國家標準《企業水平衡與測試通則(GB/T12452-90)》;一些省、市人民政府還把水量平衡測試納入地方性行政法規、規章。此外,2017年以前和2020年以前,有關部門還將分別制定并發布一批國家鼓勵類和淘汰類的用水工藝、設備和產品目錄。這將對推動先進技術設備應用、淘汰落后技術設備、完善高耗水行業取用水定額標準、強化工業企業節水診斷起到積極作用。

    第二,推進城鎮節水器具使用,降低供水管網漏損率,加強節水型城市建設。2013年,我國城市供水管網平均漏損率約為15%。據估算,除去正常范圍內的流失率,如果供水管網漏損率能夠降低10個百分點,即可節省水資源至少52億立方米,相當于2000多個昆明湖的水量。根據《城市供水管網漏損控制及評定標準》,城市供水企業管網基本漏損率不應大于12%。為此,“水十條”提出,對使用年限超過50年和材質落后的供水管網進行更新改造,到2017年,全國公共供水管網漏損率控制在12%以內,到2020年控制在10%以內。在節水型城市建設方面,截至2013年,住建部累計批復6批共64個國家節水型城市,約占全國城市比例的10%。其中,京津冀、長三角、珠三角地區15個,占區域城市總數的30%,城市節水改造還有很大空間。為此,“水十條”提出,到2020年,地級及以上缺水城市全部達到國家節水型城市標準要求,京津冀、長三角、珠三角等區域提前一年完成。

    第三,全面提升農業用水計量設備配套和技術支撐,推進高效節水灌溉。提高農業用水效率,是增加河道流量、減少面源污染的有效措施之一。根據2013年《中國水資源公報》,我國農田灌溉水有效利用系數為0.52,比世界先進水平低0.1~0.3,農業用水占全國總用水量的63.6%。節水潛力較大,可通過完善灌溉用水計量設備,推廣渠道防滲、管道輸水、噴灌、微灌等節水灌溉技術推進農業節水。

    除了開源節流外,還要完善相應的監督、管理、考核機制,科學保護水資源。在管理層面,完善水資源保護考核評價體系,加強水功能區監督管理,從嚴核定水域納污能力。在操作層面,制定水量調度方案,合理安排下泄水量和泄流時段,保障河湖生態需水量。值得注意的是,生態需水量的科學確定是合理保護水資源的關鍵,應作為流域水量調度的重要參考。

    作者單位:環境保護部環境規劃院

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